Volume: 18 2018

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  • Title : Author Agreement for Accepted Papers vol 18 (2018)
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  • Title : Assessing the Mega Faunal Diversity of Overa-Aru Wildlife Sanctuary, Kashmir Himalaya, India
    Author(s) : Tawqir Bashir1, 2, *, S. Sathyakumar1 and S. P. Goyal1
    KeyWords : Conservation, encounter rate, Kashmir Himalaya, mega fauna and Overa-Aru
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    We report the preliminary results of field survey carried out in the Overa-Aru Wildlife Sanctuary (WS) focussing on the mega fauna of the area. The sampling recorded basic information on the occurrence, distribution and relative abundance of six species of mammals and two species of raptors. Among mammals highest sign encounter rate was observed for Himalayan brown bear Ursus arctos (0.23 ± 0.15) while, long-tailed marmot (Marmota caudata) was the most frequently sighted (0.24 ± 0.19). Raptor species showed an overlap in their elevational range and were distributed mainly in the coniferous forests and alpine habitats of the area. The study highlighted the conservation importance of the area. We therefore, propose a well-designed monitoring program using camera traps surveys that can be useful in generating robust information on population trends, to ensure efficient conservation of the species in the sanctuary.

  • Title : Promoter Types and Their Applications in Crop Biotechnology: A Review
    Author(s) : Sajad Ali1*, Showkat Ahmad Lone2, Ajaz Ali Bhat3 and Anita Grover1
    KeyWords : Genetic engineering, 35S promoter, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid
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    Plant genetic engineering is an incredibly important tool to study the gene regulation, plant development and produce resistant varieties against various abiotic and biotic stresses. Genetic transformation of plants in addition to target gene also requires a highly specific promoter for the specific and temporal expression of the target gene. In crop biotechnology, transgene is commonly driven by, constitutive promoters, such as CaMV 35S (cauliflower mosaic virus), or its derivatives. Such promoters are in use for long, although they efficiently drive the expression of genes but are associated with a number of unwanted problems such as homology-dependent gene silencing, altered plant development or morphology and are constitutively expressed at high levels throughout the plant even in the absence of the inducers (abiotic or biotic stress). To overcome this burden, tissue or organ specific and inducible promoters can be used to drive transgene expression. Various tissue specific promoters such as leaf-specific promoter, phloem-specific promoter, root-specific promoter, fruit-specific promoter, specific promoter and flower specific promoter have been isolated and characterized earlier. The variations in the expression of stress inducible genes are a result of the architecture of the promoters. Expression of transgene under the control of stress-inducible promoters is in demand and is preferred to produce transgenic plants having resistance to multiple stresses. This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of constitutive promoters and the need for inducible promoters.

  • Title : Effects of Silver and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on the Germination Indices of Brassica juncea Seeds
    Author(s) : Ahmad Faraz, Mohammad Faizan and Shamsul Hayat*
    KeyWords : Agriculture, copper, mustard, nanoparticles, silver
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    Diverse application of nanoparticles (NPs) made it possible that they can be used in agriculture as nanofertilizers which increase the plant growth and yields. This paper investigates the in vitro stuides of two nanoparticles, silver (Ag) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on the germination of mustard seeds. Different concentration (0, 2, 4, 8 or 16 mg/L) of both nanoparticles was used in this experiment. CuO NPs shows the better result than AgNPs on germination and maximum increase was found at 4 mg/L of CuO NPs which was about 19% by CuO NPs at 4 mg/L as compared to control, whereas, vigour index was 267% and germination index was 29% higher than the control. At the same concentration (4 mg/L), AgNPs increased the germination rate by 8%, vigour index by 104% and germination index by 9% over the control.

  • Title : Impact of Environmental Acidic pH on Oxygen Consumption in an Air Breathing Murrel Fish, Channa gachua
    Author(s) : Qaisur Rahman
    KeyWords : Acidic pH, oxygen consumption, Channa gachua.
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    Fish are amongst the most diverse groups dwelling in fresh waters of the world. Among them, several groups developed air breathing mechanisms to avoid low oxygen constraints, which are common in fresh waters and more than 1200 species described so far. Such diversity is reflected also in feeding habits, fish size, swimming performance and breathing patterns, among others. The obligatory air breathing habit in the family channidae is an adaptation to low oxygen environments. Fish of this family are capable of using their stomach as a gas exchanger. Water breathing fish, which are highly active are not supposed to be hypoxia tolerant fishes but are often found in hypoxic environments. The present study was aimed to investigate the total oxygen consumption of fresh water fish Channa gachua during exposure and acclimation to sub lethal acidic pH (5.0) medium. The oxygen consumption of fish significantly depleted in all the days of exposure to sub lethal acidic pH 5.0 starting from first day to fourteen days of exposure. The rate of total oxygen consumption depletion was higher on first day. From the second day onwards a gradual decreasing trend was observed in the depletion up to 14th day of exposure. The unit of oxygen consumption of fish depends on exposure to sub lethal pH medium exhibited significant depletion when compared to control. The rate of depletion was maximum in the initial days of exposure and reduced gradually in twelfth and fourteenth day of exposure. But at day 14th no significant decrease was observed in both the parameters of the experimentation. This observation indicates that the fish was capable of regulating their metabolic modulations and physiological functions through acclimation process to be the possible reason for the successful survival of fish in acidifying water. The reduced oxygen consumption of fish on exposure to sub lethal acidic medium confirms the prevalence of hypoxic condition in the surrounding medium.

  • Title : A Brief Review on Climate Change Vis a Vis Solid Waste Management
    Author(s) : Aadil Gulzar1*, Nighat Gani1, Mohammad Aneesul Mehmmod2 and Zahid Nabi3
    KeyWords : Landfill, methane generation and climate change
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    This review deals with the interaction between solid waste and climate change. Unaccountable dump structures or even some landfills do not include methane collecting systems, in developing countries. In this condition, the greenhouse gas escapes to the atmosphere. The methane emissions from landfills in India are ranked second next only to coal mining. The estimation of methane emission from landfills is important in order to evaluate measures for reducing these greenhouse gases. We have also discussed about the emission of greenhouse gases from solid waste and their contribution to climate change. The importance has been placed on municipal solid waste generation quantity in Indian cities and its effects on environment and climate change. Finally, concludes that the problem of solid waste needs some holistic approaches such as reuse of solid waste to produce energy and bio-manures.

  • Title : First Record of Capsid bug, Megacoelum stramineum (Walker, 1873) on walnut (Juglans regia) from Central Kashmir, India
    Author(s) : Shaziya Gull, Tariq Ahmad*, Razia Rasheed and Ajaz Rasool
    KeyWords : Capsid bug, Juglans regia, seasonal abundance, damage, new record and Megacoelum stramineum
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    Walnut in Jammu and Kashmir is infested by various insect pests causing prominent damage to different parts of walnut trees predominantly fruits. The type of damage caused by Capsid bug, Megacoelum stramineum on walnuts is reported for the first time from Central Kashmir. Both adults and nymphs were found to feed on the lower surface of leaves, emerging buds and fruits. Emergence was reported in month of April with peak population in the month of July and plunge in population was observed in the month of October in the year 2014-2015. Feeding pattern was gregarious on abaxial surface of leaf leading to small and round sunken spots on them. Results further depicted that average mean abundance was maximum at district Budgam (59.00±31.42) followed by district Srinagar (42.29±26.32). Thus, present work is the attempt to add further knowledge to prevailing literature for mounting integrated pest management.

  • Title : Evaluation of the Effects of Silver and Zinc-Oxide Nanoparticles on the Germination of Lycopersicum esculentum
    Author(s) : Mohammad Faizan, Ahmad Faraz and Shamsul Hayat*
    KeyWords : Agriculture, germination index; nanotechnology.
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    Nanotechnology is one of the new area of research and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has increased as a result of their positive roles in many fields including agriculture. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on germination index, vigor index and seed germination rate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The experiment was performed in petriplates under controlled conditions. Different concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of both Ag-NPs and ZnO-NPs were prepared and used for the treatment of tomato seeds to study the aforesaid parameters. The results indicate that out of the above four concentration 10 ppm proved best irrespective of NPs used and enhanced the vigor index, germination index and seed germination rate over the control. Whereas, ZnO-NPs was more effective as compared to Ag-NPs.

  • Title : Promoter Methylation of RASSF1A in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma in Kashmiri, Indian Population
    Author(s) : Naseer Ue Din Shah1, Md Niamat Ali1*, Syed Mudassar2, Mosin Saleem Khan2, Jasbir Kour1, Bashir A Ganai3, Malik Tariq Rasool4 and Aabid Maqbool Lone4
    KeyWords : RASSF1A, methylation, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, metastasis
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    This study was aimed at defining the patterns of aberrant gene methylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Kashmiri patients. To determine whether this gene is inactivated during lung cancer development, we studied 100 primary non-small cell lung cancers for the promoter methylation status of gene. The methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to study methylation of RASSF1A gene 100 NSCLCs. We found promoter hypermethylation at 41% in RASSF1A. Most of the patients have adenocarcinoma (72 patients) and squamous cell carcinoma is found in 28 patients who have NSCLCs (p=0.03). Age‐ based subgroup analysis demonstrated that higher RASSF1A promoter methylation levels were associated with NSCLC more in older patients (>45 years) than younger patients (≤45). In addition, the association of RASSF1A methylation with NSCLC was significantly associated with smokers, but not in non-smokers (p=0.01). It was also identified that RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with advanced stage than early stage of NSCLC (p=0.05).

  • Title : Mass Production of Rice Meal Moth (Corcyra cephalonica) on Different Food Media Under Laboratory Conditions
    Author(s) : Ajaz Rasool1*, Rather Zubair1, Razia Rasheed1, Shaziya Gull1 and Abrar Ahmed2
    KeyWords : Development, food media, Corcyra cephalonica, survival rate, parasitoid
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    Considering the potential of Corcyra cephaionica as a host for mass rearing of some egg parasitoids, the present research was undertaken to study the development of Corcyra cephaionica on different food media with a view to find out suitable food(s) for this purpose. Three different food media viz. wheat flour, maize flour and mixture of wheat & maize flour (1:1) were used for the development of rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). Average number of eggs laid was found to be highest (230.67/female) in maize flour but hatching was found highest in wheat flour (86.87%). Longest and shortest larval duration were 43.17 and 29.90 hours when reared on maize flour and wheat flour, respectively. The highest (71.50%) and lowest (43%) larval survival rates were found on wheat flour and maize flour respectively whereas highest survival rate of pupae followed the same trend 76.34% and 49.58% on wheat flour and maize flour, respectively. The current study and results revealed that wheat flour could be used as best food for the development of Corcyra cephalonica.

  • Title : Noninvasive Methods for the Identification of Carnivores
    Author(s) : Kulsum Ahmad Bhat1, Bilal A Bhat1*, Bashir A Ganai2, Muniza Manzoor1 and Naziya Khurshid1
    KeyWords : Noninvasive, carnivores, abundance, distribution
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    The study of food chains and their influence on the environment helps in understanding the different processes involved in functioning of the ecosystem. As far as carnivores are concerned they are shy, charismatic, dangerous, wide ranging, elusive and nocturnal, hence it is almost impossible to precisely evaluate their abundance, distribution, diet and behaviour by direct observations in the field. Capture and handling are highly stressful and potentially dangerous to both humans and animals, especially with large carnivores. The scientists have solved this problem by applying various indirect or noninvasive sampling methods. This idea of collection of samples without actually seeing or touching an animal appeal many as carnivores are dangerous and extremely difficult to capture and handle. Carnivores are animals of great attention and concern because many of its species are declining at a very fast rate and the efforts are being continuously made for their conservation and management.

  • Title : Determination of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in Water Samples of Dal Lake Using DLLME Coupled with HPLC-DAD: Environmental Study
    Author(s) : Anjum Afshan1, Md Niamat Ali1* and Farooz Ahmad Bhat2
    KeyWords : di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), DLLME, HPLC-DAD
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    The present study aims at determining the concentration of di-n-butyl phthalate(DnBP) in water samples from three sites; Hazratbal, Saida kadal and Teilbal of Dal Lake using novel extraction procedure Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with (High performance liquid chromatography- Diode array detector) HPLC- DAD. The chromatographic separation was carried out with Zorbax C18 column (150× 4.6mm, 5μm) at column temperature of 30 ̊C and run time of 30 min. The mobile phase used was mixture of methanol and water (70:30 v/v) with flow rate of 1.0ml/min. The Analyte was detected at the wavelength of 230 nm in all the three water samples at the concentration of 25.44μg/L, 40.81μg/L and 22μg/L respectively.

  • Title : Human Pressure and Forest Resource Depletion in and Around Dachigam National Park, Kashmir
    Author(s) : Naziya Khurshid1*, G. Mustafa Shah1, Ulfat Jan1, Muniza Manzoor1 and Kulsum Ahmad Bhat1
    KeyWords : Dachigam National Park, anthropogenic, extinction.
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    The human pressure and forest resource depletion was assessed in and around Dachigam National Park (DNP) for a period of 2 years. Semi-structured interviews with locals, villagers, head of Villages, gujjars and bakarwals residing in and around the buffer zone of the National Park were conducted. In addition to this, the Minor Forest Produce (MFP) extracted from the forest was assessed by using semi-structured Questionnaire. It was observed that people rely on DNP largely for fire wood, grazing their livestock etc. Fire wood has been identified as one of the most significant causes of forest decline directly affecting the living of birds and animals there. Human pressure is found mainly to affect Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, Prunus, Rubus, Lonicera, Cotoneaster and Koeleria cristata. Given the magnitude of damage caused by unabated anthropogenic pressures, it might be too late to protect the threatened taxa on the verge of extinction.

  • Title : Effect of Cadmium on Growth, Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Metabolism of Crop Plants
    Author(s) : Wasifa Noor1*, Shahid Umar2, Mohammad Yaseen Mir1, Durdana Shah1, Gousia Majeed3, Sabira Hafeez3, Sabba Yaqoob3, Aadil Gulzar3 and Azra N. Kamili1
    KeyWords : Cadmium, plant growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism
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    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is one of the major abiotic stresses that adversely affect the growth, development, productivity of crop plants. It is highly soluble in water and therefore is an extremely powerful pollutant. Cadmium disturbs the function of chloroplasts by accumulating to higher levels in aerial parts. It inhibits the enzymes needed for chlorophyll biosynthesis as well as enzymes for carbon dioxide fixation i.e Ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RUBPCase) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase). Proline acts as an osmolyte for osmotic adjustment. It reduces the reactive oxygen species levels generated by Cd stress and protects the plasma membrane integrity of crop plants. Moreover nitrate assimilation is inhibited by Cadmium which is a potential inhibitor of photosynthetic process. By replacing molybdenum, cadmium inhibits nitrate reductase activity and thereby decreases the nitrate assimilation by plants.

  • Title : A Checklist of Bird Communities in Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary, Jammu and Kashmir, India
    Author(s) : Raiees Raja1, Md. Niamat Ali1*, G. Ahmad Bhat and Muniza Manzoor2
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    Eighty-five species of birds belonging to 66 genera spread over 37 families of 13 orders with one vulnerable species Kashmir Flycatcher (Ficedula subrubra) and one near threatened species Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis) were recorded in the Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary, J & K, India. The study was conducted for a period of one year from July 2016 to July 2017 and surveys were made at nine sites in the study area. We assume that focusing the conservation practices upon these species will promote the preservation of a wide range of birds inhabiting Gulmarg Wildlife Sanctuary.

  • Title : The Process of Early Blight Disease Development in Tomato
    Author(s) : Naveed Gulzar*, Azra N. Kamili and Mohammad Yaseen Mir
    KeyWords : Early blight, Alternaria solani, Solanum lycopersicum, fungicides
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    Early blight (EB) caused by several species of Alterneria and is the most drastic and devastating disease of tomato. Annual economic yield losses due to EB have been estimated about 79%. Alternaria are known only to reproduce asexually, but a highly-virulent isolate has the potential to overcome existing resistance genes. Currently, cultural practices and fungicide applications are employed for the management of EB due to the lack of strong resistant cultivars. This present review will deal with the current understanding of causal agents of EB of tomato, disease development and disease cycle.

  • Title : Bird Diversity and Abundance in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India
    Author(s) : Muniza Manzoor1*, G. Mustafa Shah1, Ulfat Jan1, Naziya Khurshid1 and Kulsum Ahmad Bhat1
    KeyWords : Birds, diversity, richness, Dachigam National Park.
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    The present study documents the bird community structure of Dachigam National Park. Since the diversity and richness of birds are good indicators of ecosystem quality, this study focused on providing some baseline information regarding diversity, abundance, seasonal monitoring and management of populations. Field surveys were conducted for a period of 18 months from September 2014 to March 2016, covering all the seasons. Bird study was carried out by Visual sighting method, Line transect method and Point count method. The avifauna of the Dachigam National Park includes a large number of both resident and migratory species. A total of 1,960 individual birds representing 134 species, belonging to 93 genera spread over 38 families and 15 orders were observed during the study. Further, it was interesting to note that the passerine birds dominated the diversity with 79 species as compared to non- passerine (55 species). The bird species diversity (Shannon Weiner’s Index and Simpson’s index of diversity) was highest during summer (0.854) followed by spring, autumn and winter.

  • Title : Studies on Measurement of Morphometric and Meristic Characters of Schizothorax niger
    Author(s) : Yusra Ashraf1*, Azra Bashir1 and Yahya Bakhtiyar2
    KeyWords : Morphometric, meristic, Schizothorax niger, Dal Lake, gill net gears and scale
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    The study dealt with the measurement of morphometric and meristic characters of Schizothorax niger. The samples of fish were collected from Dal lake, Srinagar Kashmir. Specimen of Schizothorax niger were collected with the help of local fisherman by using the gill net gears and all the morphometric and meristic characters were measured and counted. The maximum total length was 30cm and the smallest length of the sample of Schizothorax niger was 17cm. Eye diameter ranges between 0.6-1cm. The number of scales varied between 93 to105. The condition factors obtained in this study varied slightly with them which show that the Schizothorax niger was in good and healthy condition.